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clumping litter

by Marina McInnis

Cats die. Kittens die. It's part of life. But we still grieve when they die, even though we know it is only the body, not the spirit, that is gone. How much worse we feel when those deaths were unnecessary - could have been prevented by something as simple as changing the kind of litter we use.

I breed Japanese Bobtail cats and I grieved in 1994 when an entire litter of kittens (born in November 1993) died. Despite round-the-clock nursing and force-feeding of fluids and food, one kitten, then another, let go of his grasp on life.

The three kittens started as a robust lively group. Then, at weaning time, just as they were learning to use the litterbox, they began to vomit a yellow frothy substance and to pass yellow diarrhea; the diarrhea looked and smelled like clay. They also had nasal and eye discharge. The diarrhea proceeded to turn harder and even more clay-like, and finally the kittens stopped moving their bowels at all. The veterinarians said they could feel a "hard mass" inside. The kittens dwindled into thin, dehydrated, frail little skeletons, sunk in apathy. Then they died.

When these kittens first fell sick, I wasn't too worried because I had seen the same set of symptoms in two earlier litters. The first time it happened, I'd lost one kitten, but the other survived with a week of force-feeding fluids. When a second litter started to exhibit the same symptoms, we took the kittens and their parents to the veterinarian who tested them for everything from intestinal parasites to feline AIDS. The results were negative. "Some kind of virus" was the vague diagnosis, or "possibly giardia" (an intestinal parasite), even though the test for it was negative. We nursed them, gave them fluids and love, and like the previous kittens, these two were over the problem in a week.

So the third time, with the November kittens, although I was a little worried, I was confident we could pull these through as well. But their illness dragged on for three weeks, and they grew progressively weaker. Again, we had the cats and kittens tested for a variety of problems; again nothing. And then, all within the same week, the kittens died.

When a fourth litter, born in late March, 1994, began to exhibit the same symptoms yet again, I felt frustrated, frightened, and helpless. What was going on? Was there something in the environment? Was the home somehow a "sick house"? Was one of the adult cats carrying something that the kittens were picking up? I always keep my cats indoors, so it couldn't be exposure to outside cats.


I decided I needed a new perspective and began to look for a holistic veterinarian. The next day, a friend gave me the card of a new holistic veterinarian in town, Dr. Stephanie Chalmers.

But before I had the chance to take the kittens to see this new vet, I was struck by a bolt of lightening. The clumping litter! It was almost as though someone had whispered it into my ear. It made perfect sense. Everything fit: it explained all the symptoms. My thinking went along these lines:

1. Clumping litter is designed to form a hard, insoluble mass when it gets wet. It also produces a fine dust when stirred (as when a cat scratches around to bury a recent deposit). And these clumping litters absorb many times their weight in fluids.

2. When cats or kittens use the litterbox, they lick themselves clean; anything their tongues encounter gets ingested. Kittens especially tend to ingest alot of litter when they are first learning to use the box.

Once the litter is inside a kitten or cat, it expands, forming a mass and coating the interior - thus, both causing dehydration, drawing fluids of the cat or kitten, thus compounding the problem by preventing and absorption of nutrients of fluids.

. My cats and kittens had probably started with diarrhea initially in an effort to cleanse their bodies of the litter before it had a chance to settle and coat their insides. But kittens have very small intestines, a hard insoluable mass could very well produce a complete and fatal blockage within a couple of weeks.

With the strength of these deductions, I immediately went out and bought a plant-based litter to replace the clumping litter (gray with blue granules) inside. This was confirmation enough for me.

As soon as I could, I took all the kittens with their mother to Dr. Chalmers, who said that she had already heard of problems with the clumping clay litter. She put the kittens on a holistic course of treatment (slippery elm to help clear the intestines; homemade chicken soup to nourish the kittens without putting further strain on their insides).

She also showed me an article by Lisa Newman, another holistic health practitioner. Citing some of the cases of illness and death that she had seen first hand - illnesses and death likely caused by clumping litter. A bell went on in my head when I read the following:

"There has been a rise in depressed immune systems, respiratory distress, irritable bowel syndrome and vomiting (other than hair balls) among cats that I have seen in the past two years. All had something in common. A clumping product in the litterbox. In several cases, simply changing the litter improved the condition of the cat." (Healthy Pets Naturally, 1994)

The problem of health difficulties and deaths resulting from clumping litter appears to be more prevalent than people are aware of. I recently spoke with another Japanese Bobtail breeder; she told of a kitten she sold that frequently became ill with a severe respiratory problem. The new owner used clumping litter and her veterinarian found that the kitten's lungs were coated with dust from the litter.

For a veterinarian to spot this problem is unusual. A more common diagnosis would lay the blame at the door of a virus, germ, fungus or parasite. There is not a general awareness yet that the clumping litters can be harmful - even fatal - to cats.


And the problem extends beyond cats. As Lisa Newman points out in her article, dogs get into the litterbox for "snacks" and they ingest the litter too. She reports that the autopsy of one dog revealed that his stomach was filled with the clumping litter.

An article entitled "How Cat Litter Is Made" recently appeared in Cat Fancy magazine (October 1994). Shockingly, the article contains no cautions against the use of clumping litter, even though the description of one of the main ingredients in such products should be enough to alarm any thinking person. "Sodium bentonite, a naturally swelling clay, is often added as an extremely effective clumping agent. When liquid is added, bentonite swells to approximately 15 times its original volume. But because sodium bentonite acts as an expandable cement would, litters containing sodium bentonite should never be flushed; when they expand they can block plumbing." A few moments thought is all that is needed to realize that something able to block household plumbing must be wreaking havoc on the plumbing of our feline companions.

What about my kittens after I switched to a plant-based litter? Sadly, the two females died. Both were passing clay stools right up until the time of their deaths; one kitten was still passing clay almost two weeks after I switched litters. The two males survived, though it took months for them to fully recover. Only after switching to a completely organic homemade diet was I able to clear up the last traces of this ordeal. And still I grieve for kittens who died so needlessly.


You may feel as horrified as I do at the thought that there must be thousands of kittens and cats (and other animals) ailing or even dying from clumping clay litter. What can we do to prevent such suffering?

One thing is let the manufacturers know we won't buy such products. My husband called a company that makes one of these clumping litters. The woman he spoke with said that the company is aware that clumping litters may be causing health problems, but that it is the consumer's responsibility to make sure their cats don't eat the stuff.

My husband pointed out that cats clean themselves with their mouths so, of course, they're going to eat the litter every time they use their cat boxes. Unfortunately, the company's representative maintained the "buyer beware" position.

Given the attitude of such companies, we can vote with our pocketbooks by purchasing products from businesses that are more responsive to our concerns. Be sure to let the makers of the clumping litter know why you no longer purchase their product. You might even choose to boycott all products by these companies (it isn't hard to find out who makes what - just read the labels). An even more effective move might be to show this article to the owners or managers of stores selling these products. If you suspect that an animals may be suffering an ailment caused by clumping litter, take him or her to a veterinarian or holistic practitioner immediately, and explain what you think may be happening. If you encounter resistance, it may mean that this veterinarian is not familiar with the problem and doesn't know how to handle it. Try to find a holistic vet - either locally or someone you can work with by phone - who has some experiences with clumping litter impacting the intestines - and the respiratory passages. Most importantly, replace the clumping litter right away with a plant-based alternative. Even if your cat is healthy, it makes sense to switch to a different litter.

If you love cats as I do, spread the word. Tell everyone you know about this problem. Tell your veterinarian. You may save the lives of many kittens, cats and other beloved creatures. Clumping litter is often lethal. It contains sodium bentonite which absorbs moisture, swells, and hardens. That is why this litter comes with advice not to flush it. It will ruin plumbing. Kittens with their tiny intestines are particularly vulnerable to its effects but all cats will suffer, ingesting the chemical when they stir up the litter and then clean their coats and paws. One cat we know got off easy. She was wheezing and coughing when her owner found out about the litter. The cat was well a few days after the litter was eliminated.

Pet Rescue received this E-mail: Date: Sunday, May 30, 2004
Hi, my name is Jessica. I recently had a kitten named Maria that was as alive and well as any kitten you can imagine. A couple of months ago, she started having a discharge from her eye and repeated bowel movements. We took her to the vet and were sent home with some antibiotics but she became even worse. Before we could take her back to the vet she passed away one night lying in a pool of her own vomit, a sight too sad for anyone to see. My husband and I just sat in dismay. What went wrong? Did we do something? We had given her the best and done everything we could, so we just decided it was her time to pass, and buried her near our home with our hearts near hers. Months later we decided to get another kitten and brought home a brother and a sister. They were only seven weeks old and as cute as they come, both very active and playful. One morning I noticed that the little girl had some breathing difficulty and was a little sluggish. By the time I got home from work that night she lay on the floor with yellow vomit beside her. This time I noticed something strange, little pieces of kitty litter were in it. I thought, that's it! I went on the internet determined to look until I found my answer. Lo and behold, there it was, every symptom the kittens had. All I had used was clumping litter. I threw out my new bag. I thank you from the bottom of my heart for posting this article and feel that there should be a warning on every box of clumping litter. I don't know how many more deaths I could take before I just gave up and never owned a cat again.